What Is Partition In Real Estate? (Correct answer)

Partition is the division of real or personal property between or among two or more co-owners, such as joint tenants or tenants-in-common. A Partition By Sale allows a co-owner of real property to force a sale of the entire property despite the unwillingness of any co-owner.

Can I do a partition of real property?

  • expression of intention- one member of the joint family can express his intention to partition,even though no actual partition takes place.
  • by Notice
  • by Will
  • by agreement- such severance of status takes place from the date of signing of the agreement.


What happens when you partition a property?

A partition action allows a co-owner of a property to force a sale of the property, so they can take their share of the proceeds. However, in some cases, the other co-owners may not want to sell the property.

What is a partition in sale?

A California partition action happens when one co-owner of real property wants to sell but other co-owners do not want to sell their ownership rights. Partition means division. The opposing co-owners have the absolute right by law to divide the property and sell their portion with the legal remedy of “Partition”.

Who pays for a partition sale?

In many states such as California, a co-owner of property can file a partition action and force either a physical division of a property or where a division is not equitable a sale. All parties in the partition action are responsible for costs expended for the “common benefit” of the sale of the property.

How does a partition work?

Partition in kind is the preferred method of partition under California law, though not the most common. Partition in kind involves physically splitting up the property between parties in an equitable manner, so that each is awarded their fair share of the whole. This is often done in cases involving lots of land.

How expensive is a partition lawsuit?

Attorneys’ fees in a partition lawsuit commonly range from around $20,000 to $100,000 or more, and the lawsuit itself can take over a year or two to complete. Costs of partition, which include attorney fees, are generally distributed and paid according to each party’s interest in the property.

How much does a partition action cost?

This usual cost for a partition action in California is between $5,000 to $12,000, with the most common cost for a partition action being about $8,000.

Can I sell a jointly owned property?

If you are living in the jointly owned family home, unless you agree to voluntarily sell the home your spouse or partner can apply to the Court for an order for sale of the property. The Court will normally only make an Order for sale at a final hearing.

How do you split a co owned property?

By far the easiest way to divide jointly held property is simply to agree to do it. The joint tenants can simply come up with an agreed division of the property. It may be a good idea to hire an attorney to draw up a legally binding agreement once you and the other joint tenants have agreed in principle to a division.

How do you partition a property?

The partition deed is required to be registered at the office of the sub-registrar of the place where the property is situated as in case of any other registration. The stamp duty payable in such a case is Rs 1,000 for each share of the property. Further, the registration fee will be Rs 500.

How do you sell house if partner doesn’t want to?

If the co-owner is not willing to sell their share, they may be agreeable to buy your share. In either case, once the share is transferred the legal owner(s)has control of the property. Sell your share to another buyer. Legal ownership provides the right to sell the portion of the property specified.

Can the court make me sell my house?

And the short answer is, “ Yes.” The court can force you to sell your home because they have the authority to transfer property from one spouse to another or to order property sold pursuant to a dissolution of marriage.

Can a majority owner sell property?

A: The majority owner can not obligate the minority owner(s) to sell the property if the owner’s are listed on the deed individually (i.e. the property is not owned by an entity such as an LLC, Corp., LP, etc.).

Can a co-owner force a sale?

Yes! In most cases, ANY co-owner (even a minority owner) can force a sale of the property regardless of whether the other owners want to sell or not.

Is partition a real action?

An action for partition of real property, as the name itself clearly suggests, is a judicial controversy between persons, who, being coowners or coparceners thereof, seek to secure a division or partition among them of the common property, giving to each one the part corresponding to him.

What happens after partition?

What happens to a property after a partition deed is executed? Once the partition deed comes into effect, each share in the property becomes an independent entity. Each divided share of the asset gets a new title. Also, members surrender their claim in the shares that have been allocated to the other members.

Frequently Asked Questions Pertaining to Partition Matters

What is the definition of a partition action? A partition action is a form of lawsuit that involves the division of real property between joint owners. When two or more owners are unable to reach an agreement on the disposal of the property in question, any of the owners has the right to bring a partition action in the relevant court. What types of remedies can be given by a judge in a partition case are outlined below. The most typical sort of relief is an order directing that the real property be sold and the revenues split among the property’s proprietors.

Is it possible for a judge to grant other forms of remedies in a partition action?

However, this is uncommon since most real estate has been upgraded with structures or a home, which are often incapable of being physically separated between numerous property owners.

It is normally more sensible, even in this case, to sell the property and share the earnings between the individuals who own it.

  • A property is frequently owned by a single individual who eventually dies away.
  • When the parties are unable to come to terms on how the property should be utilized, a partition action is frequently brought.
  • If the couple separates, it is possible that they will not agree on how the property should be utilized, which will result in another partition lawsuit.
  • In such a circumstance, the legal ownership of the property takes precedence above anything else.
  • Is it possible to fix a partition scenario without having to go through a court-ordered sale?
  • To guarantee that the parties follow through on their resolution, it is vital to have a legally enforceable settlement agreement established by legal advice drafted by an experienced attorney.
  • When one owner buys out the other, how do the cash become available?

A mortgage can be taken out against the property in issue, with the proceeds being used to compensate a co-owner for their portion of the property as part of a settlement agreement involving the property.

What about the costs of maintaining and reselling the property, you might wonder.

Everyone who owns a piece of property is given the chance to demonstrate their contributions to the care of the property, such as the payment of real estate taxes, insurance premiums, and property repairs, as well as any revenue they may have received from renting the property.

Is it possible for me to bring a partition action on my own?

We urge that you get legal advice before filing such proceedings in order to guarantee that your rights are safeguarded as much as possible.

It is necessary that we have a copy of any and all papers pertaining to ownership of the property, such as deeds, wills, or other legal agreements, before we can adequately examine the case.

Is it possible to split both business and residential property through a partition action?

Our company has extensive expertise in resolving a wide range of property issues.

Do you take care of partition cases all throughout the metropolis, or only in your own neighborhood? Our company represents clients in all five boroughs of New York City, as well as in the counties of Westchester, Rockland, Putnam, and Nassau, among other places.

How To Win A Partition Action

When one party to a jointly-owned property or a business wishes to sell their ownership rights, this is referred to as a partition action. A partition action is a legal proceeding that takes place in a court of law to resolve a business litigation or partnership disagreement that arises on a regular basis. Parties who possess real estate typically sell their assets to third parties. As a result of this procedure, it is simpler for each partner to get their equitably fractioned interest. Estates can also be divided through the use of a partition action.

As a result, a partition is a request to a court for assistance in determining the most equitable method of splitting jointly owned property.

Here are some suggestions.

Key To Winning A Partition

The most important step in winning a partition lawsuit is to get as organized as you possibly can. Keep track of any pertinent paperwork. Having all of your ducks in a row will increase your chances of winning a partition lawsuit.

  • Maintain Organization: Maintain organization by retaining all documentation pertaining to the ownership of property or company. Maintain an organized file system with clearly labeled parts
  • Attend all business meetings and take regular meeting minutes: Business owners should attend all company meetings and take regular meeting minutes. Keeping meticulous notes of everything that was discussed and agreed upon makes it easier to demonstrate any discrepancies.
  • Practice Communication with Co-Owners: Clear communication with co-owners ensures that everyone knows the expectations placed on them. It is important to remember a shared purpose statement.
  • Provide For Your Bases:Business and property owners should ensure that they are meeting their obligations under whatever agreements and commitments they have signed with co-owners
  • Provide For Your Bases:Business and property owners should ensure that they are fully compliant with whatever agreements and duties they have signed with co-owners

Can A Partition Be Stopped?

Typically, once a lawsuit has been filed, a partition action cannot be stopped since anyone who want to dissolve ownership of property that is jointly owned with another person has the legal right to sell his or her interest if that is what they choose. If you happen to be one of the parties that does not want to see the property divided up, you may be able to use one of the following defenses to prevent or delay down the forced sale:

  1. Purchasing the interests of the other parties, if at all feasible
  2. Checking the contract to see if the right to divide has been waived
  3. Make certain that the plaintiff has the legal right to divide the property
  4. Check deeds to ensure that all parties have a right of ownership or title to the property
  5. Ensure that there has been no breach of contract between the interested parties.

The most effective strategy to win a partition lawsuit is to mount a strong defense. Hiring a knowledgeable attorney can help you save money, time, and worry.

Best Question to ask before and during a Partition Action

The best method to win a partition action is to mount a strong defense. It is more cost effective, time efficient, and stress-reducing to hire an experienced attorney.

  • The most effective method to win a partition action is to mount a vigorous defense. Hiring a knowledgeable attorney will save you money, time, and stress in the long run.

Having a solid defense is the most effective approach to win a partition action. Hiring a knowledgeable attorney will save you money, time, and stress.

  • Generally, legal fees are established by the attorney and vary depending on how complicated the case is.
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3) Are property owners making the greatest option possible for their investment in the property? Are all of the property owners acting responsibly?

Do I Need an Attorney for a Partition Action?

Get to know the attorney and determine whether or not he or she is the type of lawyer you want to represent you. Bring a list of questions with you. It is recommended that you consult with an experienced partition attorney, company legal, real estate attorney, or estate planning counsel who is knowledgeable with the legislation in your region. When it comes to your California Partition Action, we at Stone and Sallus are here to assist you.

What Is a Partition Lawsuit? A Method for Severing Joint Ownership

Real estate has traditionally been the preferred investment for people seeking to accumulate long-term wealth for their families and future generations. By subscribing to our complete real estate investment guide, you will receive assistance in navigating this asset class. When numerous persons have joint ownership of a piece of land, it is possible for arguments to arise. Possibly, one person wishes to keep the property while the other wishes to sell it, or perhaps their relationship has ended and they both wish to be able to walk away from a shared asset without having to pay any money.

In any situation, a partition lawsuit may be the most effective method of determining how to proceed. In this section, we’ll go over what a partition lawsuit is, how it works, and how it may be used to help you separate shared ownership of a piece of property.

What is a partition lawsuit?

Whenever two or more parties who have an ownership stake in a piece of property disagree about what should be done with the property, a real estate partition lawsuit is brought against each other. It is most common for this sort of action to be filed during the division of an estate between contentious family members, during divorce processes, or following the dissolution of a failed business partnership. A partition litigation usually comes to a close in one of two ways. Either the court orders a forced sale of the jointly owned property at auction or by private sale, after which each owner receives an equal share of the sale proceeds, or the court divides the property into pieces and grants each owner an undivided interest in their own separate piece of the property, depending on the circumstances.

This is extremely unusual.

When a court is responsible for splitting a single residential property or business structure, a forced sale is almost often the outcome of a partition litigation.

How does a partition suit work?

The specifics of the litigation will be determined by the partition statute in effect in your jurisdiction. Before proceeding, you may want to speak with an experienced real estate attorney to ensure that you understand what you are getting yourself into. As a general rule, most states tend to follow a similar procedure, so here’s an overview of what a partition situation would look like.

Filing a petition to partition

The filing of a partition action, also known as a petition to partition, is the initial stage in the process of real estate partition. The partition action must be filed in the superior court where the property is located, and all of the co-owners, as well as anybody else who has an existing or prospective interest in the property, such as an alien holder, must be listed in the case. A “lis pendens,” also known as a default notice, is typically issued at the same time as a petition for divorce.

It has no legal significance.

Issuing an interlocutory judgment

When a partition case is brought, the court’s first step is to determine whether or not the plaintiff genuinely has the legal authority to partition the property in question. After that has been verified, the superior court will proceed with the issuance of an interlocutory decision in the matter. Each person’s stake in the property is described in this decision, and it also commands that the property be partitioned, as well as determining the way in which it will be partitioned.

Appointing a partition referee

As long as both parties agree after the decision has been issued, the court will appoint a partition referee to supervise the division of the property after the judgment has been announced. It is important to remember that, although if employing an arbitrator is typically the wisest line of action in circumstances when the partition case is controversial, it is the co-owners who are ultimately liable for paying the referee’s legal expenses.

Because they are invoiced on an hourly basis, much like attorney’s fees, this approach can quickly become prohibitively expensive.

What are the different types of partition actions?

As you can see in the chart, there are three various methods in which a property can be partitioned: partition in kind, partition by allotment, and partition by sale. Partition in kind is the most common type of partition. Each one is described in further detail below. Take a look at them to get a feel of which strategy would be the most appropriate for your house.

Partition in kind

A partition in kind, often known as a “actual partition,” is the sort of property division in which the property is divided into equitable portions. Each property owner will get a percentage of the proceeds that is proportional to their ownership stake in the land. Again, though, this form of division is normally only carried out when there is enough property to provide each co-owner with a respectable-sized parcel of ground. Aquiet title action will then be filed in court to provide each owner the individual ownership rights to their plot of property.

Each division will also need to be documented with the county clerk, and the property taxes will need to be reassessed as a result of the division.

Partition by allotment

Partition by allotment is an uncommon type of partitioning in which ownership is granted to a single individual, who is then forced to purchase out the remaining co-owners. However, it is not available in every state. When it is permitted, it is most commonly employed in estate litigation. Typically, in these cases, the estate handed joint ownership of the family house to all of the siblings, regardless of their ages. One sibling, on the other hand, has remained a life renter in the house, while the others have left to live in their own homes.

Partition by sale

The most prevalent way of real estate split is through the sale of the property. This is the form of partition in which the property is sold at auction or through a private sale, and the proceeds of the sale are divided equally among the co-owners of the property. To assist with the selling process, the partition referee may call in an experienced licensed real estate agent or an experienced real estate attorney. This sort of partition is most effective in instances where it would be difficult to split the property evenly or if the parties are not getting along and do not want to be divided into separate portions of property.

The bottom line

Property division is rarely a straightforward process. To avoid incurring significant legal bills, your best hope for finding a solution is to either reach a private agreement or to consider mediation as a last resort.

Partition lawsuits, on the other hand, are a solid choice when you and your co-owners are unable to reach an agreement on what should be done. With this approach, you’re almost certain to achieve a satisfactory conclusion of some sort.

Partition Action: Pros and Cons

Is there anything that can be done when a piece of real estate has two or more owners, and one of them wants to sell but the others don’t? This occurs commonly in families when real estate is bequeathed to heirs in a will, but it may also occur when a couple separates and then divorces. What method will you use to split the property? What measures should be made in this situation? Once you’ve been familiar with the legal instrument known as a Petition to Partition, you may find the solution you’re looking for.

There are three ways in which property can be owned by more than one person: joint ownership, joint tenancy, and joint tenancy with rights of survivorship.

  1. Joint tenants
  2. Tenants in common
  3. Tenants by the entirety (not an option in all jurisdictions)
  4. Tenants by the majority
  5. Renters by the majority and tenants by the majority and tenants by the majority and tenants by the majority.

Property owners make the selection about which category their property will be placed in when they acquire the property. Every sort of property has the right to be occupied by its owner in its entirety. That means that one individual is not permitted to select certain rooms and make them inaccessible to the other residents of the building. Every parking space on the property is completely free and open to all of the property’s owners.

Petition to Partition

Petitioning for a divorce is a legal right, and the procedure begins with the submission of a petition with the Clerk of Court. Petition regulations differ from one state to the next. Though specific to the sort of current title to the land, this concept can be used more broadly. It is possible to file on behalf of the owners of Tenants in Common (TIC) and Joint Tenants with Rights of Survivorship (JTWROS). The revenues from the sale of a JTWROS property are distributed equally among the co-owners when the property is divided.

  1. In the event that any party makes an excessive contribution to the purchase price, no credit will be awarded to that party.
  2. Improvements that result in an increase in the value of the property may also be eligible for tax credits.
  3. For example, if a property is held by three persons named A, B, and C as tenants in common, and A owns 50percent of the property while B and C both hold 50percent of the remaining land, then a sale of the property for $200,000 would result in A receiving $100k and Band C receiving each $50k.
  4. It is possible that the court will decide to pay A a few additional dollars from the judgment that is paid to B and C if A performed reasonable modifications but was never rewarded.

To avoid a forced sale, a few states allow one of the tenants to purchase out the other tenant(s) through a legal process. Several jurisdictions also permit numerous tenants to combine their shares, resulting in a majority ownership position, which might prevent a forced sale from occurring.

When Property Owners Can’t Agree

When someone owns real estate with another individual, or when numerous individuals own real estate jointly, it is possible that a quarrel will arise at the moment of sale. This occurs regularly when a person passes away and leaves their real estate to a number of other people. The use of a “Petition to Partition” may be able to break the impasse and resolve the problem. When the procedure is initiated, a notice is sent by the court and distributed to all owners of the property, as well as anybody who may have a legal interest in the property, such as lien or mortgage holders, among others.

  • Many property owners will employ their own legal counsel since anyone who does not want the petition to proceed can file a petition with the probate court seeking to have the procedure halted.
  • When a family is unable to come to agreement on the conditions of the sale on their own, the petition to partition can be used to force the co-owners to sit down and bargain.
  • Everyone concerned must be aware that there will be unnecessarily long periods of time and delay, and that the ultimate sale price might be significantly lower.
  • Working with a neutral third party, the co-owners get down and attempt to achieve a settlement that is acceptable to all parties involved in the dispute.
  • As with many other life situations in which the courts are called upon to intervene, there may be a benefit — as well as a downside — to having the courts engaged.

Pros and Cons

  • When the co-owners are unable to reach an agreement, this is advantageous. Possibility of collecting unreimbursed expenditures associated with large modifications carried out by one of the owners


  • The process is time-consuming and perhaps expensive
  • The property is usually lost through resale and the revenues are shared

Partition of Jointly Held Property – The Basics

Bringing a legal “partition” action against a property entails bringing a lawsuit in court to force the physical division or sale of the property, as well as the distribution of the revenues among the co-owners. When it comes to co-ownership, it can be an absolute right in certain circumstances, while in others, it might be reliant on a variety of criteria. Because it is vitally critical for you to completely grasp how partition works and what rights a co-owner has to insist on.or fight.the right of partition, if you are going to or already own property jointly, read the following article.

  1. Not only may your usage of the property be radically altered, but you may also be compelled to sell the property at a time that is detrimental to your financial well-being owing to personal events in your life or the status of the real estate market.
  2. Understanding the fundamentals of the right to partition property in California is essential to determining whether or not to enter into such an arrangement, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of doing so.
  3. The action is referred to as a Split Action, and it is an absolute right for those who have concurrent interests (now existent) and who have not “waived” their right to partition the land.
  4. It will be discussed in this article the fundamentals of a partition action, including how it is brought, what the requirements for success are, and how the property or sale profits are split if the action is successfully brought.
  5. One of the co-owners will often initiate a civil case in Superior Court, although the parties can simply agree on how to split their property if they so want.
  6. In addition, the relevant court is the court in where the property is situated.
  7. CCP 872.140 is a classification code.
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In most cases, the court will enforce any agreement reached between the parties.

The action for division may be brought by any individual who has an existing or prospective interest in the property in question.

(Other remedies are available to holders ofMechanics Liens or Deeds of Trust in addition to partition.) 4.

They are unable to seek division.

All parties to the case who have an existing or prospective interest in the property must be listed as plaintiffs and defendants.


The Lis Pendis is filed with the county recorder’s office in the county in where the property is located, and it is legally binding.

In the course of the partition action, the court must make any determinations as to the status and priority of all liens against the property as well as the different rights to the property of the parties that are necessary.


The division of concurrent interests is a matter of right unless it is prohibited by waiver.

Division of successful estates is permitted only when it is in the best interests of the parties, as determined by a court of law, and is not in the best interests of the parties if it is not in the best interests of the parties.

Moreover, in the latter case, the court has practically complete discretion.

The court has the authority to either order the sale of the property or to physically divide the property among the parties involved.

If even one concurrent interest plaintiff demands on partition, the court must give it, whether by physical division of the property or sale and split of the earnings.

2d 319; Priddell v Shankie(1945).

Unless the parties agree on a sale, or the court deems that a sale would be “more equitable,” partition is accomplished via physical division of the property.

CCP 872.830; ButteCreekIslandRanch v Crim(1982) 136 C.A.



The court retains custody of the revenues and allocates them as follows: expenditures of sale; additional costs of division; liens in order of priority (both parties and non-parties); and distribution of the parties’ portion of the residual amongst the parties.


Attorneys’ expenses incurred by a party, referees’ fees, surveyor fees, and title report costs are, on the other hand, explicitly permitted.

Considerations for the Real World: If possible, our firm suggests that the parties attempt to reach an informal agreement on the split of their property rather than relying on the expensive and time-consuming technique of judicial partition to share their assets.

Naturally, by the time the attorneys are contacted, emotions are sometimes so heightened that a rational discussion of the realities is difficult, with certain parties pushing on buyouts while others refuse to even entertain the possibility of such a transaction.

However, it is vital to understand that, absent a waiver of the right, partition WILL take place if you possess concurrent interests in the property, and if you are “stuck” into joint ownership that is not working well, there is a guaranteed route out of the situation.

The waiver of this right must be included in your legal documents if you are forming an agreement for the ownership of real estate.

Many well formed real estate partnerships, with extensive purchase and sell provisions, have gone to nought in our office’s experience because the right to divide was not adequately researched and integrated into the arrangement.

One customer compared the power to divide to a type of “nuclear deterrence,” in which the drastic consequence of initiating such action will lead joint owners to be “sensible,” as opposed to “irrational.” Although it may be a strong weapon of relief available to joint owners in California, it is also an important piece of information that one should acquire before owning joint property with anybody else.

How to Stop a Partition Action

Partition actions are legal actions that allow a co-owner of real estate to compel a sale of the property so that they can get their portion of the earnings from the sale. Although the other co-owners may not wish to sell the property in some instances, this is not always the case. While it is quite difficult to halt a partition process from a legal standpoint, there are other options.

What is a partition action in real estate?

Apartition action is most commonly brought when a single family house has been given to children in a family trust and one of the children want to sell their portion of the property in order to get the proceeds. Each child has the right to sell their portion of the business whenever they want. Although it is technically possible to separate a single family house, this is not possible in most cases, and hence the consequence of a partition action is that the home is placed on the open market for sale.

What happens, though, if one of the children want to remain in the family home?

The co-owner who desires to sell will most likely file a partition action, which will force the sale of the home in the event that the value of the residence cannot be determined by both parties.

Can a partition action be stopped?

A partition action cannot be halted in the majority of circumstances. However, there may be legal defenses that can prevent or delay down a forced sale, including the following ones:

Contractual Agreement

There may be a contract in place if the property was acquired by many co-owners, which states that the property is not subject to a partition action, that the action cannot be launched within a specific date, or that mediation or arbitration is necessary rather than court litigation. There are also additional options available to you that can assist you in achieving a more positive outcome. SCHEDULE A COMPLIMENTARY CONSULTATION WITH SCOTT.

Selling your share to other co-owners

A trust litigation attorney can assist you in negotiating the transfer of a co-interest owner’s to another co-owner. If a settlement cannot be reached through negotiation, a mandated settlement conference or mediation will most likely be held as the following step in the process.

Selling your share for the most money

A trust litigation attorney can assist in ensuring that the property is sold for the highest feasible price.

Securing a buyout of your co-owners shares

Sometimes clients do not want to share an inherited property with their other family members and think only of selling their interest in order to get out. However, it is often possible to buy out your family members and keep the property, even if only for as long as it takes to renovate the property before reselling it.

Partition actions and spouses

Depending on when the property was acquired, a spouse may or may not be entitled to launch a partition action against the other spouse.

If you are participating in a dissolution case, we can collaborate with your divorce attorney to evaluate what rights you may have and what limits may exist in terms of what you may be allowed to do with your property, or not be able to do with your property.

Can I hire a trust litigation attorney to stop a partition action?

For the purpose of litigating a partition case, you can employ a trust litigation attorney. If, for example, you paid for upkeep, repairs, upgrades, property taxes, mortgage payments, and other costs associated with the property, your attorney may seek to boost the value of your part of the property. As a result of this, instead of everyone receiving their respective shares of the earnings, you will receive whatever is left after the real estate agent, closing costs, and attorney’s fees incurred by the party who brought the partition action have been paid off on top of that.

If you believe a partition action may be necessary, consult with an attorney as soon as possible.

The consultation is always provided at no cost: (424) 320-9444.

Partition Actions and California Law

California law is quite clear when it comes to partition actions. See Section 872.210 of the California Code of Civil Procedure for further information. Be aware, however, that the regulations governing partition actions are intended to safeguard co-owners of real estate property by allowing them to divest themselves of the property anytime they desire, while also recovering a fair market value for their portion of the property. Several public policy considerations underpin this decision, the most important of which is to guarantee that property is made useful and preserved.

When do I need a trust litigation attorney?

When you believe that you and a fellow property owner are unable to co-manage a property, you should consult with a trust litigation attorney to see if a partition action is necessary. Often, just bringing a partition action will push a reluctant owner to the negotiating table, where a compromise can be reached, putting an end to the lawsuit, saving you money on legal fees, and obtaining a favorable outcome for you.

Do I need a trust litigation attorney near me?

Find an experienced trust litigation attorney who is familiar with the county probate court in the county where the real estate property is located, as recommended by our firm. For example, if the property is located in Los Angeles, we propose that you engage with a trust dispute attorney in Los Angeles to resolve the matter. If you choose a Los Angeles probate lawyer rather than an out-of-state attorney, you may expect them to be more knowledgeable with the Los Angeles Superior Court Probate Division.

Have questions? We’re happy to help.(424) 320-9444

In addition to clients in Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Orange County, San Diego, Kansas City, and Miami, RMO LLP also services clients in communities across the states of California, Florida, Missouri, and Kansas. Trusts & Estates Litigator of the Year and Best Lawyers in America for Litigation – Trusts and Estates are just a few of the honors bestowed upon our founder, Scott E.

Rahn, by SuperLawyers and Best Lawyers in America in their respective categories. Call (424) 320-9444 or go to the following website for a free consultation:

Partition by Sale vs Partition in Kind

Partitioning is a partition of real or personal property amongst co-owners that takes place between them. This is most common when property is inherited or passed down through the generations. Partitioning may be divided into two categories: partition in kind and partition by sale. Chapter 46 of the North Carolina General Statutes has the specifics on this subject. It is simply when the property is split between the many owners in an equitable and fair manner that the property is called Partition in Kind (also known as Actual Partition).

  • This strategy is often preferred by the courts since it does not compel someone to sell their property against their wishes.
  • First and foremost, a Partition by Sale may be necessary if the property in question cannot be physically (or fairly) split among the co-owners.
  • The court will order the sale of all of the co-owners’ property if dividing the property among them would cause a substantial financial hardship to any or all of them.
  • According to North Carolina General Statute 46-22, while establishing what constitutes “substantial harm,” the court will consider the following factors:
  • It is necessary to determine whether the fair market value of each co-portion owner’s of the real property would be considerably less than the amount each co-owner would get if the property were sold as a whole. Whether splitting the property by Partition in Kind would result in a serious impairment of the rights of any co-owner

If you are the party seeking a Partition by Sale rather than a Partition in Kind, you have the burden of demonstrating that a substantial damage would otherwise result from the absence of the partition. It is often considered improper to coerce someone to sell his or her property, which is why Partition in Kind is the most popular and frequently used method of property division. In contrast, if a property has been inherited or passed down by law, and the co-owners are unable to come to terms on specific issues, Partition by Sale provides a solution.

Partition Step-by- Miami Real Estate Lawyer Law Offices of Andrew J. Pascale, P.A.

In real estate, partition refers to the ability of an owner to share real estate that he or she owns with another. In accordance with Chapter 64 of the Florida Statutes, co-owners of real property who own it with others have the right to impose not only the partition of the real estate, but also the sale of the real property. To put it another way, it is a method for co-owners of property to end their contractual obligations to the other co-owners of land. In a partition case, the Court will order an equal split of the property if the property can be divided into equal pieces of equal value or if the property can be divided according to the ownership interests of the parties.

In situations when real estate cannot be divided into equal portions, such as a house, it is usual for the Court to order the sale of the property and that the revenues be shared equally or in accordance with the parties’ ownership interests.

Partition is a reasonable remedy, particularly in cases when the co-owner requesting the partition does not have the financial means to purchase the other co-owners’ shares. The Step-by-Step Guide to the Partitioning Process

  1. Although it is not required by the Florida Statutes, the division procedure should begin with a formal written demand from the parties. In order to divide ownership of real estate, the co-owner seeking division should submit a written request to the other co-owner(s) requesting that ownership be divided equally or according to ownership interests in the property, as well as requesting that the property be sold and the proceeds divided equally or according to ownership interests. After receiving a written demand, it is strongly recommended that a copy of the letter with proof of mailing be kept in personal records. If the co-owners do not agree to divide the property equitably after receiving a written demand, the filing of a petition or complaint in court serves as the first step in the process of partitioning the property. Among the legal requirements for partition are a description of the property to be partitioned as well as the names and addresses of each owner, as well as a statement of the quantity or current percentage of ownership held by each owner, all of which are necessary for the court to determine the rights and interests of the parties. As part of this, you may be required to provide a description of the real estate’s title history. Given that partition is a type of civil litigation, similar to other civil lawsuits, the co-owner respondents or defendants are given the opportunity to file a written response and answer to the partition complaint. The Court will determine the rights and interests of all parties in the lawsuit, and a judgment for partition will be entered if it appears that the parties are entitled to it. When the rights and interests of plaintiffs have been established or are not in dispute, the court may order the partition of the property according to the parties’ percentage of interest
  2. Florida Statute, Chapter 64, instructs the court to appoint three suitable individuals as commissioners to devise a plan for partition if the parties are unable to agree on how the property should be divided
  3. And Florida Statute, Chapter 64, instructs the court to appoint three suitable individuals as commissioners to devise a plan for partition Unless the parties agree on and designate the commissioners, the court selects the three members of the commission. The commissioners have the authority to hire a surveyor if it is necessary in order to divide a parcel of property under certain situations. The commissioners are ultimately responsible for providing a written report to the Court on how the property should be split
  4. Any party has the chance to make objections to the commissioners’ report within 10 days of it being served. If no objections are made, or if the court determines that the objections are unjustified, a final judgment will be recorded, transferring title to the parties to the real estate that has been apportioned to them and granting them ownership and possession of the property. Their title and ownership are instantly quieted in the eyes of the other parties involved in the litigation, which means that the other parties are no longer able to assert claims against them. Upon filing of the complaint, if partition is not contested, and the property sought to be partitioned is indivisible and cannot be divided without prejudice to all owners, any party may move the court to appoint a special magistrate or order the clerk of court to sell the property, either at a private or judicial auction. The court may order that the real estate be sold at public auction to the highest bidder and that the proceeds of the sale be paid into the court and divided among the parties in proportion to their interest if the commissioners report that the real estate is of an indivisible nature and that it cannot be physically split without causing harm to all of the owners. A judgment of partition is binding on all parties in the lawsuit, and all parties must pay a share of the court costs, which are divided among the parties in proportion to their interest. In the event of a judicial sale, court expenses and fees would be deducted from the proceeds of the sale, which would be paid to the court prior to release of the funds.
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Because the division procedure entails a number of technical processes, it is recommended that an attorney manage them. Leave nothing to chance or hope that everything will turn out well; get everything done perfectly the first time. Attorney Andrew J. Pascale, who practices business law in Miami, has almost 10 years of expertise representing clients who are seeking property division. Get in touch with him right away to talk about the legal choices that are easily available to you.

Partition (law) – Wikipedia

Apartitionis a phrase used in the law of real property to denote an action taken, whether by court order or otherwise, to break up a concurrent estate into distinct sections that represent the proportionate interests of the property’s owners in each component. It is referred to as a “forced sale” in some circles. According to common law, every owner of property who has an undivided concurrent interest in land has the right to seek a division of such an interest. Occasionally, the parties will come to an agreement on a precise division of the property; if they are unable to reach an agreement, the court will establish a suitable split of the land.

Why forced sales occur

Forced sales typically occur when property owners are unable to reach an agreement on certain aspects of their ownership. The owners may be at odds about how to utilize the land, how much money to invest in the property, and whether or not they have the right to inhabit and use the entire property, among other things. If the parties are unable to reach an agreement, the case is brought before the court in the form of a petition to partition action. Property can be owned by more than one person in a variety of ways, including as joint tenants, tenants in common, or tenants by the entirety in some jurisdictions.

Each kind of tenancy provides the owner with the right to occupy the entire property.

Types of partition

There are three types of partition that can be given by a court: partition in kind, division by allotment, and partition by sale. Split in kind is the most common type of partition.

  1. An actual divide of the property itself amongst co-owners is referred to as a partition in kind. An allotment partition, which is not available in all jurisdictions, is where the court awards full ownership of the land to a single owner or subset of owners and orders them to compensate the person or persons divested of ownership for the interest awarded
  2. A partition by sale is when the land is forcibly sold followed by an equitable distribution of the profits generated among the tenants
  3. And a partition by sale is when the land is forcibly sold and then divided among the tenants. As a general rule, a court is meant to order a partition sale only if the land cannot be physically split, albeit this judgment is sometimes based on whether the aggregate economic worth of the divided portions is less than the aggregate value of the parcel as a whole. Delfino v. Vealencis, 436 A.2d 27 (Conn. 1980)
  4. Delfino v. Vealencis, 436 A.2d 27 (Conn. 1980).

A rule that fully prohibits division will not be enforced by the courts, but a provision that temporarily restricts partition will be enforced by the courts as long as the limitation is fair.

Statutory variations

The Ontario Partition Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. P.4, as amended, states that the following: “(2)An action or an application for the partition of land in Ontario, or for the sale of land under the direction of the court, may be brought by any person interested in land in Ontario, or by the guardian of a minor entitled to immediate possession of an estate therein, if the court determines that the sale would be more advantageous to the parties interested in the land.

3 (1) of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1990, c. P.4.”

Florida statutes

Chapter 64 of the Florida Statutes provides for partition proceedings, which essentially states that each co-owner of real estate has the right to file a partition action. In Florida, there are virtually no defenses to a partition action, with the exception of the fact that the parties have agreed not to split the real property.

Pennsylvania code

  • In the event that property is split under Rule 1560(a), the parties’ respective interests in the property will be determined by a master appointed by the court, who will conduct any required examinations and hold any necessary hearings with reasonable notice to the parties. A majority of the defendants who own a majority of the property’s value may object in writing to any sale, requesting that the property be kept in its original condition
  • The master may employ appraisers and, with the approval of the court, such other experts as are necessary to enable the master to perform his or her duties
  • The court may permit the shares of any two or more co-tenants to remain undivided between them if they so elect by writing filed within such time as the court or master shall direct
  • Partie After receiving such a request, the entire property will be awarded to the parties objecting to the sale as tenants in common, with the parties desiring partition and sale receiving payment from the parties desiring partition and sale of the amounts of their respective interests based on the valuation. The monies owed the parties shall be levied as liens against the property, and they shall be paid in accordance with the court’s directions in the manner and time specified

Illustration of a partition According to D’Arcy v. Buckley, 71 Bucks County Law Review 167 (1997), two persons acquired real estate as joint tenants with right of survivorship, and the court ruled in their favor. The plaintiff made a five-to-one contribution to the purchase price, whereas the defendant made a one-to-one contribution. When the plaintiff filed a partition action, he sought credit for the full amount of his superior contributions, which were denied. As a result of the deed’s operation, the Court determined that the two joint tenants each had a one-half interest in the property, absent any evidence of deception on their part.

Masgai, 460 Pa.

Murphy, 369 Pa.

255, 535 A.2d 146 (1998), are both precedent-setting cases (1987).

California Code

Division in kind is preferred under California Civil Procedure Code 872.810, although partition by sale is permitted if a partition by sale increases the market worth of the subject property to its highest possible level (s). It is common in many cases to go through a two-step process: (1) a trial, during which oral and documentary evidence is heard, and which either affirms or denies a moving party’s right to effect a partition of the subject property(s), and (2) an evidentiary hearing (also a trial), which is usually held after the property(s) have been appraised by an expert in the field of real estate valuation (sometimes referred to as a “second interlocutory judgment”) (sometimes called a “second interlocutory judgment”).

  1. Employing professionals such as engineers and surveyors, and preparing specific reports are typical responsibilities for this section (which include conveyance deeds and easement deeds).
  2. This will take place at a hearing (not a trial) (any cash compensation due any of the parties will also be effectuated within the escrow).
  3. The Partition Referee is responsible for ensuring that the property is divided in a fair and equitable manner.
  4. It is in either situation that a Partition Referee is appointed to carry out the terms of the interlocutory judgment.
  5. The sale by the Partition Referee might take place either through a public auction or a private sale, depending on whatever is more advantageous to the parties.
  6. Before a sale by a Partition Referee to become official, the court must affirm that the sale took place.

Upon confirmation of the sale by the Court, the Partition Referee is given the authority to execute the paperwork necessary to complete the transaction.

Partition procedure

A partition lawsuit must be filed by the party requesting a partition. State rules often prefer physical division (partition in-kind) of the affected property(s) over sale (partition by sale as a unit), particularly if a renter would be displaced from his or her principal residence as a result of a sale, according to the National Association of Realtors. If an in-kind split is possible, the property(s) will be divided in a proportional manner between the parties. Small disparities in such divisions are unavoidable, and monetary compensation for the difference(s) will be paid in order to maintain proportionality in the split.

Typically, a special master (referee) is appointed by the court to oversee the execution of the partition procedure.

In the case of an in-kind division, the referee will arrange for the preparation of deeds to the adjusted property(s).

It is intended that the conveyance deeds for the adjusted property(s) and the easement deed(s) be recorded at the same time.

Tenants in common partitions vs. tenants with rights of survivorship partitions

In contrast to tenants in common (TIC) deeds, joint tenants with rights of survivorship (JTWROS) deeds must always be taken in equal shares unless expressly and clearly stated otherwise in the deed language, and even then, the deed must be taken in equal shares unless expressly and clearly stated otherwise in the deed language. In order to differentiate between the two sorts of deeds, a partition action is required for each. Given that a JTWROS property is always taken in equal shares when purchased, when the property is partitioned, the proceeds must be distributed equally among tenants without regard to their participation to the purchase price.

The premise of a JTWROS deed would be invalid, and the purpose of the deed would be thwarted if this were not the case.

In any case of division, renters may seek reimbursement for uneven payments to expenditures spent after receiving the deed to the house.

Such credits, which may be used to cover utility and maintenance bills, are given according to the number of shares in the company. The issuance of credits for renovations to a property is possible if the improvements resulted in a significant rise in its monetary value.


  1. “Forced Sale Risk: Class, Race, and the Double Discount,” by Thomas Mitchell, Stephen Malpezzi, and Richard Green, was published in 2009. Florida State University Law Review, vol. 37, no. 589. Hinkel, Daniel F., et al (1991). Real Estate Law in the Real World. Cengage Learning, Stamford, CT, p. 23. ISBN 9781285965741
  2. Kuperman, Z.K., Stamford, CT, p. 23. ISBN 9781285965741
  3. Kuperman, Z.K., Stamford, CT, p. 23. (2011). “Cutting the Baby in Half: An Economic Critique of Indivisible Resource Partition” is a paper published in the journal Economics Letters. Brooklyn Law Review, vol. 77, no. 263
  4. The Florida Partition Statute is as follows: Pennsylvania Code
  5. Because partition proceedings are “equitable” in nature, only court trials are used
  6. That is, no jury trials are allowed in partition actions.

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