What Is Grm In Real Estate? (Perfect answer)

Gross rent multiplier or “GRM” is a metric utilized to quickly calculate a property’s profitability compared to similar properties within the same real estate market. In order to determine the gross rent multiplier, you would divide the price of the property by its gross rental income.


What is a good GRM in real estate?

Typically, investors and real estate specialists would say that a GRM between 4 to 7 are considered to be ‘healthy. ‘ Anything above would mean having a more difficult time paying off the property price gross with the annual gross annual income of the rent.

Why is GRM important in real estate?

The GRM is important to real estate investors because of its usability and speed. The formula itself utilizes only two variables: rental property value and gross property income. The GRM can be quite an effective tool in doing so, as it allows users to easily compare potential investments.

What is GRM used for?

Gross rent multiplier (GRM) is an easy calculation used to calculate the potential profitability of similar properties in the same market based on the gross annual rental income. The GRM formula is also a good financial metric to use when market rents are rapidly changing as they are today.

What is a standard GRM?

The 1% Rule states that gross monthly rents should be equivalent to at least 1% of the purchase price. For example, a property that sells for $500,000 should generate $5,000 in gross rents per month. A property that sells for $1,000,000 should generate at least $10,000 in gross rents per month.

What is a good GRM for a duplex?

The lower the GRM, the better. This means that your rental property will take less time to pay off its property price. Typically, you want your Gross Rent Multiplier to range from 4 to 7.

What is a fair GRM?

The GRM is 8.33. When you are searching for an “A” quality property 1 – 10 years old in this market for sale a reasonable GRM would be a 12 which is multiplied by the annual gross rents and this will give you a reasonable purchase price. For a “C” property that is over 25 years old in fair condition use an 8 – 10 CRM.

What is a good cap rate for rental property?

In general, a property with an 8% to 12% cap rate is considered a good cap rate. Like other rental property ROI calculations including cash flow and cash on cash return, what’s considered “good” depends on a variety of factors.

What is a good cash on cash return?

There is no specific rule of thumb for those wondering what constitutes a good return rate. There seems to be a consensus amongst investors that a projected cash on cash return between 8 to 12 percent indicates a worthwhile investment. In contrast, others argue that in some markets, even 5 to 7 percent is acceptable.

How is cap rate calculated?

Capitalization rate is calculated by dividing a property’s net operating income by the current market value. This ratio, expressed as a percentage, is an estimation for an investor’s potential return on a real estate investment.

What is a good GRM in Los Angeles?

GRMs of under 10 cash flow great, Grms of 12-14 cash flow around breakeven with 20% down, Grms of 15-18 Needs 30% or more to cash flow breakeven. GRMs of 20 are sometimes paid for the best properties in teh best areas, but rarely will income property exceed 25 GRM.

What is a 10 cap in real estate?

Cap rates generally have an inverse relationship to the property value. For example, a 10% cap rate is the same as a 10-multiple. An investor who pays $10 million for a building at a 10% cap rate would expect to generate $1 million of net operating income from that property each year.

What is the difference between gross and net rent?

A net lease is the opposite of a gross lease in terms of payment for utilities, taxes, repairs and any other additional expenses. In a net lease, the predetermined rent is typically lower and the additional costs aren’t included in that set rate.

How to Calculate Gross Rent Multiplier & Uses for Investors

Trying to figure out which rental property is the best investment may be quite difficult, especially if you are new to the world of real estate investing and have no experience. Fortunately, there are a number of important financial measures that you can use to determine which income-producing property is superior to the others in terms of value. When selecting rental properties to invest in and monitoring the financial performance of properties they already own, both beginning and experienced real estate investors use the gross rent multiplier to make informed decisions about their investments and to make informed decisions about their properties.

What is Gross Rent Multiplier?

The gross rent multiplier (GRM) is a simple computation that may be used to determine the prospective profitability of similar properties in the same market based on the gross yearly rental revenue received by the property. The GRM formula is also a useful financial statistic to employ when market rents are fluctuating fast, as they are at the moment. Using the gross rent multiplier is akin to running fair market comparables based on the rental revenue that a property is presently – and may be – producing when the rents are raised to market rates in some aspects, but it is more complicated.

How to Calculate Gross Rent Multiplier

In real estate, the gross rent multiplier (GRM) is a simple computation that is used to determine the prospective profitability of similar properties in the same market based on the gross yearly rental revenue received by the property. When market rents are fluctuating fast, as they are right now, the GRM formula is a useful financial statistic to employ. Using the gross rent multiplier is akin to running fair market comparables based on the rental revenue that a property is presently – and may be – producing when the rents are raised to market rates in some aspects, but it is more complex.

  • The gross rent multiplier (GRM) is a simple computation that may be used to determine the prospective profitability of identical properties in the same market based on the gross yearly rental revenue. The GRM formula is also an excellent financial statistic to utilize when market rents are fluctuating fast, as they are at the moment. In some respects, the gross rent multiplier is analogous to running fair market comparables based on the rental revenue a property is presently – and may be – producing when the rents are raised to market rates.

In order to demonstrate how to compute the gross rent multiplier ratio, we’ll use a tiny three-unit multifamily property as an illustration. If the property generates a gross yearly rental income of $43,200 and the asking price for the property is $300,000 per unit, the gross rental margin (GRM) will be 6.95:1.

  • $300,000 in property value divided by $43,200 in gross rental income is 6.95 GRM.

When seen in isolation, a GRM of 6.95 is neither excellent nor terrible because there is nothing to compare it against. A solid rule of thumb that many investors follow is that the lower the GRM is when compared to other similar properties in the same market, the more desirable an investment is in the long run. This is due to the fact that the property generates higher gross revenue and hence pays for itself at a faster pace when compared to other investments. There are several other applications for the GRM computation.

Consider the following scenario: the market GRM for similar homes in the same market is 7.5. Assuming that the property is being offered for sale for $400,000, the gross rental revenue should be $53,333:

  • In other words, gross rent multiplier equals property price divided by gross rental income
  • Gross rental income equals property price divided by gross rent multiplier equals $53,333 gross rental income
  • $400,000 property price divided by 7.5 gross rent multiplier equals $53,333 gross rental income

If you know the market GRM as well as the gross rental income generated by the property, you can use the gross rent multiplier formula to determine the value of the property:

  • In this case, Gross Rent Multiplier equals Property Value divided by Gross Rental Income
  • Property Value equals Gross Rental Income multiplied by Gross Rent Multiplier equals $53,333. Gross rental income multiplied by a gross rent multiplier of 7.5 equals a property value of $400,000.

How GRM is Different from Cap Rate

In contrast to the gross rental income (GRI) calculation, which is used to determine what a property’s current or future value should be based on the net operating income (NOI) returned to an investor, the capitalization rate (cap rate) calculation is used to determine what a property’s current or future value should be based on the gross rental income generated. It is important to remember that the net operating income (NOI) only covers typical operational expenditures and does not include the mortgage payment (P I) made on the property.

An example of how to calculate the cap rate The attribute from the previous section will be used to compute the cap rate in this section.

That instance, if a property generates a gross rental revenue of $53,333 per year, the net operating income (NOI) is around $26,667.

  • Cap Rate equals net operating income divided by property value
  • $26,667 net operating income divided by $400,000 property value equals 0.066 or 6.7 percent.

It is similar to the GRM in that the cap rate is meaningless on its own. On the other hand, if two identical properties in the same market have the same cap rate of 6 percent, the property with the higher cap rate may be a better deal since the prospective return is larger. GRM vs. Cap Rate: Which Is Better? It is important to note that the cap rate and the GRM present potential value in two separate ways. When it comes to the computation of the cap rate, the higher the cap rate, the more potentially profitable the property is expected to be.

The smaller the GRI, the more potentially lucrative the property.

  • GRM = $400,000 Property Value / $53,333 Gross Rental Income = 7.5
  • Cap Rate = $26,667 Net Operating Income / $400,000 Property Value = 0.067 or 6.7 percent
  • GRM = $400,000 Property Value / $53,333 Gross Rental Income = 7.5

Gross Rental Income (GRI) = $400,000 Property Value / $53,333 Gross Rental Income = 7.5; Cap Rate (CAP) = $26,667 NOI/$400,000 Property Value = 0.067 or 6.7 percent; GRM = $400,000 Property Value / $53,333 Gross Rental Income (GRI) = 7.

  • GRM = $400,000 Property Value / $56,533 Gross Rental Income = 7.08
  • Cap Rate = $28,267 NOI / $400,000 Property Value = 0.0707 or 7.1 percent
  • GRM = $400,000 Property Value / $56,533 Gross Rental Income = 7.08
  • GRM = $400,000 Property Value /

Best Uses for Gross Rent Multiplier

The gross revenue multiplier (GRM) is a useful formula to employ when determining the value of a property’s gross income stream. The fair market value of two comparable homes may be $300,000 each, but if the GRM of the properties is $200,000, the property with the lower GRM may be the more valuable due to the greater gross rental income stream. The gross rent multiplier may also be used to keep track of changes in the value of a property based on gross rentals. Consider the following scenario: your property has a GRM of 7, whereas similar properties in the area have a GRM of 7.5.

The opposite is true if your GRM is higher than that of other similar properties.

With only raising your rentals to market rates, you have a good chance of not having any renters leave in the process. As long as you do this, you should be able to swiftly locate a new renter who is prepared to pay the market rent, as other landlords are demanding the same monthly price as yours.

Advantages and Drawbacks of GRM

When employing the gross rent multiplier, there are numerous advantages and disadvantages to be aware of: GRM has a number of advantages.

  • Comparing similar homes in the same market with a quick back-of-the-napkin computation is simple. A simple formula that new rental property investors may use to determine the worth of their properties
  • When identifying which real estate investment choices provide the most potential for profit, a good screening tool is essential. GRM focuses on the rental revenue generated rather than the price of the property, the price per square foot, or the price per unit of the property. The gross rent multiplier can be used to determine the value of rental property by both sellers and purchasers. If, for example, a seller has a totally upgraded house that is rented to excellent tenants, the seller’s asking price may be greater and the GRM may be lower. The price may be below market value or the gross rental income may be greater, thus buyers searching for a good bargain may hunt for property with a lower GRM.

GRM has a number of disadvantages.

  • There is a significant drawback to using the gross rent multiplier calculation since it does not take into consideration operating expenditures. A property with a low GRM that has a substantial amount of deferred maintenance may not be as desirable an investment as it appears as a result of this
  • Additionally, GRM does not account for lost rental income owing to vacancies caused by typical tenant turnover or a badly kept property taking longer to rent than usual. Some investors believe that the time it takes to pay for a property is measured by the GRM, but in actuality, the GRM just compares the gross rental income generated to the property’s market value.
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How To Calculate And Use Gross Rent Multiplier

Real estate has traditionally been the preferred investment for people seeking to accumulate long-term wealth for their families and future generations. By subscribing to our complete real estate investment guide, you will receive assistance in navigating this asset class. Consider the following scenario: you’re looking for a rental property to invest in, but you’re feeling overwhelmed by the hundreds of properties for sale in your area. If there was a fast computation that could assist you in swiftly narrowing down the list of potential investment property options, wouldn’t that be fantastic?

Here’s a summary of this critical real estate investment measure, how to include it into your study, and some of the other criteria you may use to analyze potential rental homes in order to select the best possible property for you.

How to calculate a gross rent multiplier

Real estate investors utilize the gross rent multiplier (also known as the GRM) to analyze possible investment properties. The calculation for the gross rent multiplier is rather straightforward. The gross rent multiplier for a certain property is calculated by taking the price of the property and dividing that figure by the projected annual gross rent. For example, if a house is being sold for $200,000 and it can be reasonably expected to generate rental revenue of $2,000 per month, the gross rent multiplier would be one hundred times the purchase price.

So, if you’re looking at two virtually identical homes, one with a gross rent multiplier of 95 may be a better investment prospect than a similarly situated one with a GRM of 100 if you compare the two properties.

The majority of real estate investors utilize gross rental margins (GRMs) based on monthly rent; nevertheless, it is becoming increasingly common to hear GRMs based on yearly rental income.

For example, some investors would not even consider a property unless they have determined that it would have a gross rent multiplier of 100 or less based on the estimated monthly rent at the time of acquisition.

Example of the gross rent multiplier

Consider the following scenario: you receive an email notifying you that three new real estate listings that suit your basic investment property criteria have just been added to the marketplace. And the following traits can be found in them:

  • Property 1: Listed for $200,000, this duplex is rented at $1,050 per month for a total gross rent of $2,100
  • Both apartments are rented at $1,050 per month for a total gross rent of $2,100. Property 2: This single-family home, which is listed for $120,000, rents for $1,200 per month and is available for immediate occupancy. This property, which has a list price of $250,000, is a triplex with each apartment rented for $850 per month, for a total gross rent of $2,550 per month.

Using this formula, you can figure out the gross rent multiplier for any given property by dividing its purchase price by its gross monthly rent. Keep in mind that lower is preferable. As a result of these gross rent multiplier calculations, it appears that the first property is the most advantageous investment option.

Keep in mind, though, that this is only one component of the jigsaw. When a single-family property is rent-ready and the others require considerable maintenance, the single-family home may be the greatest investment even though it has the highest gross rental income (GRI).

Advantages and drawbacks

The gross rent multiplier, like all other methods of appraising possible investment properties, has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of employing the gross rent multiplier is that it is simple to calculate and understand. To calculate it, just divide the purchase price of a property by the anticipated monthly rental income. The gross rent multiplier can assist you in narrowing down hundreds or even thousands of real estate listings into a small list of homes to consider by performing this task for you.

Not every property with a gross rent multiplier less than 100 (or any other criterion) is likely to be a good investment, regardless of its location.

Value traps are what I call these sorts of properties, and it’s crucial to remember that a low gross rent multiplier does not always indicate a good investment opportunity – it’s simply a means to filter down a search before conducting more due diligence.

For starters, you’re often working with the property’s asking price, which isn’t always the actual purchase price you may get for it or the actual property worth.

Other important metrics to use in real estate investing

As previously stated in the previous section, no one real estate investing statistic is perfect in and of itself. The gross rent multiplier is no exception, and it is calculated as follows: The most effective approach for a real estate investor to utilize it is as part of a “toolkit” of measures that may assist you in determining whether or not a real estate investment is worth your time and effort. Cap rate– The cap rate (short for capitalization rate) can be more useful when analyzing the profitability of an investment property than the gross income because it takes into account the property’s net income after expenses such as property tax, insurance, and so on, rather than just the property’s gross income.

  • If a property makes net operating income of $70,000 per year and costs $1,000,000, the cap rate would be 7 percent on the investment.
  • The capitalization rate is most commonly employed in the evaluation of commercial real estate, although it may also be used to residential buildings in some cases.
  • Many investors have particular cash flow goals that they wish to achieve, while others (like myself) just insist that every rental property they own generates positive cash flow from the tenants.
  • Calculating cash flow for a rental property can be tricky and needs certain assumptions.
  • The way it works is as follows.
  • The property’s HVAC system was also replaced for an additional $5,000 shortly after closing, bringing my total out-of-pocket buying expenses to $30,000.

After costs, the property generates a cash flow of $200 per month, or $2,400 per year after taxes and insurance. When I divide my cash flow by my acquisition cost, I get an 8 percent cash-on-cash return.

How to use the gross rent multiplier

Although the gross rent multiplier is useful in many situations, it is not an excellent all-in-one indicator of whether a specific property is a viable investment opportunity or not. As an alternative, it’s a useful screening tool that may assist you in narrowing down all of the real estate listings in your area to those that are worth your time to investigate further. A specified cutoff, such as a maximum GRM of 100, is required by certain investors. Some are even more extreme, requiring a GRM that is even lower before they will consider investing in a company.

The main line is that the gross rent multiplier may aid in narrowing down your search and directing you toward the most promising investment prospects.

How To Calculate And Use Gross Rent Multiplier

The most recent update was made on July 13, 2021. When assessing the value of income-producing real estate, the Gross Rent Multiplier (or GRM) is a quick and simple procedure that may be done on the back of a piece of paper. Calculating the gross rent multiplier, sometimes referred to as the GIM or Gross Revenue Method, allows investors to rapidly assess possible investment properties based on their ability to generate rental income. In addition, GRM is a computation that may be employed in a rental market that is always changing.

Using GRM to evaluate potential rental property investments can be done in a variety of ways, as will be discussed in this article.

What is The Gross Rent Multiplier?

GRM is a ratio that relates a property’s gross yearly rental revenue to its fair market value (or “fair market value multiplier”). Because GRM is based on gross rent, it does not take into account standard operational expenditures or debt service payments. The income technique is used to determine the value of rental property, and GRM is a simpler method of doing so. When a real estate investor visits theRoofstock Marketplace, he or she may quickly and easily ascertain the gross rent multiplier of the different single-family rental properties for sale in various markets by just entering their search criteria.

Instead, calculating the GRM allows you to determine at a glance whether or not a property is worth the additional time and effort required to thoroughly investigate it further.

How to Calculate GRM

Here’s how to compute a gross rent multiplier using the following formula:

  • Gross Rent Multiplier equals the product of the property price and the gross annual rental income
  • For example, a $500,000 property price divided by $42,000 in gross annual rents equals 11.9 GRM.

The gross rental income (GRI) computation compares the asking price or fair market value of the property to the gross rental revenue. The gross rent multiplier is a useful tool for getting a “quick glance” at how quickly a property will be paid off based on the gross rent generated by the investment. Using this example, the payback period is little less than 12 years.

Keep in mind, however, that expenditures such as routine maintenance, vacancies caused by unit turns, as well as property taxes and insurance, are not included in this estimate. This is due to the fact that the GRM calculation utilizes gross rent rather than net operating income.

Examples of When The GRM Formula is Used

The gross rent multiplier in the above example was calculated using the GRM formula, which may be found here. The computation of the gross rent multiplier can also be applied in two other situations:

  1. Determine the fair market value of a property based on the gross rent and gross rental margin (GRM) of comparable properties in the same market
  2. Make an estimation of what the gross rentals should be based on the market GRM and the purchase price

Let’s have a look at the two additional methods to apply the GRM algorithm to your situation.

Using GRM formula to determine fair market value

You must know the GRM for comparable properties in the same market in order to calculate a property’s fair market value. You must also know the gross rent, or, if the property is unoccupied, what the gross rentals are predicted to be in order to calculate a property’s fair market value.

  • For example: $42,000 Gross Annual Rental Income multiplied by 11.9 GRM is $499,800 (rounded up to $500,000)
  • GRM = Property Price / Gross Annual Rental Income
  • Property Price equals Gross Annual Rental Income multiplied by 11.9 GRM

Using GRM formula to calculate gross rent

The gross rent should be calculated using the GRM formula, which we’ll go through later. For this computation, you must know the fair market value of the property as well as the average gross rental income (GRI) for comparable properties in the same geographic area.

  • GRM = Property Price / Gross Annual Rental Income
  • Gross Annual Rental Income = Property Price / GRM
  • Consider the following example: $500,000 in property price divided by 11.9 GRM equals $42,016 (rounded down to $42,000).

How to Create a GRM Grading Scale

When you purchase a rental property, you are acquiring an income-producing investment as well as the revenue stream that the property creates for you. Despite the fact that a lower GRM may create sufficient revenue to pay off a property more quickly, investors should take into account the age of the property and the possibility of greater maintenance expenditures. A low GRM on an older home may appear to be a good deal at first glance. However, if there is a significant amount of maintenance work that has to be done, vacancy may be greater, resulting in a reduced cash flow and a higher gross rental margin (GRM).

  • Inflation-adjusted gross rental income (GRI) = aging property with neglected maintenance or in need of large capital repairs such as roof replacement or a new heating and cooling system
  • In this definition, average GRM refers to a residence built within the previous 10 or 20 years that need updating such as energy efficient windows, appliance replacement, or exterior painting. An above-average GRM is a property constructed within the previous ten years that requires just regular maintenance to preserve its value and rents at market rates. The term “high GRM” refers to a brand new property with lower routine maintenance costs due to the use of modern appliances and state-of-the-art electrical, plumbing, and HVAC systems.

Creating a GRM grading scale for your market allows you to utilize the gross rent multiplier calculation to balance the risk associated with the age of the property and the possibility for greater maintenance expenditure. In addition to property age, you may take into consideration the Roofstock neighborhood ranking when comparing GRMs of properties in the same region.

What is a Good Gross Rent Multiplier?

GRMs fluctuate in the same manner as capitalization rates differ across different property asset classes and between different markets. If you are looking for a single family rental in a major city like Atlanta, an 11.5 GRM would be a terrific deal, but it would be far too low in the Lufkin, Texas market, where GRMs are 7.0 and above. The simplest approach to determine whether or not a GRM is good is to examine comparable properties in the same market region using the gross rent multiplier as a guide.

ProsCons of Using The GRM

There are three main reasons why real estate investors utilize the gross rent multiplier: GRM makes advantage of information that is freely available, is simple to compute, and saves time by weeding out potentially problematic transactions before they are finalized. The gross rent multiplier, on the other hand, has several drawbacks that should be considered. The following are the most significant advantages and disadvantages of employing the GRM formula. Advantages of Using the GRM

  • When evaluating multiple properties, GRM is a simple prescreening tool that can be used by both buyers and sellers to determine which offers the most potential value based on rental income and asking price. GRM is more meaningful than property price, price-per-square-foot, or price-per-unit because it takes into account the rental income being generated. A seller who has a completely renovated and well-maintained home, as well as a seasoned renter, may choose to price the property at a somewhat higher asking price than the market GRM. A buyer, on the other hand, will search for a GRM that is a bit lower than the market GRM since the price may be lower than the market

The disadvantages of utilizing the GRM

  • Operating expenditures are not taken into consideration while calculating GRM. It is not taken into consideration when calculating the GRM the vacancy factor caused by typical unit turns and badly maintained property. Only when comparing similar property types in the same area or market can GRMs be considered meaningful.

GRM vs. Cap Rate Calculation

However, while both the GRM and the cap rate are derived from the revenue method, the two formulae examine the worth of the property in two distinct ways.

The net operating income (NOI) formula is used to calculate the cap rate, which takes into account standard running expenditures like as maintenance, management fees, property taxes, and insurance, among other things. The formula for calculating the cap rate is as follows:

An illustration of how two rental properties with the same gross rental income (GRI) might have significantly different capitalization rates: Property1

  • Market value is $250,000
  • Gross revenue is $30,000
  • Net operating income is $20,000
  • GRM is 8.33
  • And the cap rate is 8%.
  • Gross receipts of $250,000
  • Gross income of $30,000
  • Net operating income of $20,000
  • GRM of 8.33
  • And capitalization rate of 8%
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The fact that Property1 has a higher cap rate than Property2 does not always imply that Property1 is a better investment than Property2. For example, the owner of the first property may be delaying necessary repairs in order to maintain a high net operating income (NOI). As an example, the owner of property two may have just invested $5,000 to modernize the rental, which results in a reduced net operating income (NOI) in the near term but a greater net operating income (NOI) in the long run after expenditures return to normal.

  • Cap rate: $22,500 Net Operating Income / $250,000 Market Value = 9 percent new cap rate compared to 6 percent previous cap rate
  • Gross rental income (GRI): $250,000 Market Value / $32,500 Gross Annual Rental Income = 7.7 percent new gross rental income compared to 8.33 percent previous gross rental income

Final Thoughts

When it comes to screening and ranking possible real estate investments, the gross rent multiplier is a quick and simple tool that everyone can use. GRM is a straightforward calculation that may be performed using easily available information. The gross rent multiplier, on the other hand, has its own set of limits. A gross revenue model (GRM) is based on gross revenue and does not take into account operational expenditures. Gross rent multipliers, on the other hand, may only be utilized when comparing rental properties that are comparable in kind, location, and market.

Gross rent multiplier – Wikipedia

After deducting expenses such as property taxes, insurance, and utilities, the gross rent multiplier (GRM) is calculated as the ratio of the purchase price of a real estate investment to its annual rental income. The gross rent multiplier (GRM) is the number of years it would take for the property to pay for itself in gross received rent. For a potential real estate investor, a lower GRM indicates a more favorable investment environment. The GRM is useful for comparing and selecting investment properties in which depreciation effects, periodic costs (such as property taxes and insurance), and costs to the investor incurred by a potential renter (such as utilities and repairs) can be expected to be uniform across the properties (either as uniform values or uniform fractions of gross rental income) or insignificant in comparison to gross rental income (either as uniform values or insignificant fractions of gross rental income).

Due to the fact that these expenses are generally more difficult to forecast than market rental return, the GRM can be used as an alternative to a measure of net investment return in situations where determining such a measure would be challenging.

In today’s market, it is extremely typical for real estate agents to quote GRM utilizing yearly rentals rather than monthly rates when quoting GRM.

A gross rental income of $8.33 GRM based on yearly rentals indicates that the gross rent will pay for the property in 8.33 years.

The cap rate, in contrast to the GRM, is not a multiplier, but rather a rate of return on an annual basis. The multiplicative inverse of the cap rate would be a multiplier that is equivalent to the GRM calculated from net return in the same way.

Relationship of the cap rate to the total return

Another method of determining the worth of a property is to utilize a multiple of gross prospective rent, which is calculated by comparing multiples of gross potential rent at comparable properties that have sold. Using the gross rent multiplier (GRM) or the gross income multiplier (GIM), which are both essentially the same, this may be accomplished. Whenever you use these figures, it is critical to understand if they were obtained from multiples of gross prospective rent or rather from effective gross revenue multiples.

It is not necessary to assume that the value of an example property of $18,325,000 is created only by investors’ desire for a 5.46 percent beginning income yield in order for its worth to be represented in terms of a cap rate of 5.46 percent.

It is more appropriate to conceive of the longer-term total return overall viewpoint given by DCF as being the driving force behind the $18,325,000 property valuation.


Because it only considers the gross revenue of a property in relation to the price/value of a building, the Gross Rent Multiplier differs from other screening techniques in that it does not consider the price/value of the structure. This makes the measure a somewhat blunt instrument in real estate analytics, and it is employed largely as a screening tool rather than an indication of value in order to determine indicative screening results. Simply explained, the Gross Rent Multiplier is the ratio of the purchase price of the subject property to the gross rental revenue generated by the property.

However, this is incorrect.

Here is the Gross Rent Multiplier Formula.

GRM is an abbreviation for Price/Gross Annual Rent. As you can see from the calculation above, the Gross Rent Multiplier is derived by dividing the fair market value of a property (or the asking price of a property if it is on the market for sale) by the expected yearly gross rental revenue of the property in question. This, of course, requires that you are aware of the expected yearly gross rental revenue for the property. If the seller does not supply you with an actual rent roll, you will need to conduct some market research in order to have a better understanding of the typical asking rentals for properties that are similar to the one in issue.

In addition, any debt that may have been utilized to acquire the property is not taken into consideration by the gross rent multiplier.

Calculating GRM

This is referred to as the “gross revenue multiplier” in certain circles instead of the “gross rent multiplier,” because it is indicative of the income earned by more than just straight rent. Whichever period you choose, it is critical to include all yearly rents/revenues earned by the property, including costs for parking, laundry, storage and other related services. Suppose an investor intends to acquire a rental property for $5 million with a monthly gross rental income of $44,000 and wishes to reinvest the proceeds.

  • As a result, we must multiply $46,000 ($44,000 + $2,000) by 12, which results in an annual rent of $552,000 ($44,000 + $2,000).
  • In addition, because the GRM use gross rents as the denominator in the equation, it cannot be utilized to determine any type of payment period for a real estate asset; only net operating income (NOI) may be used to do this.
  • TheGRMis used solely as a standard for comparing one property to another in terms of its performance.
  • The GRM, as well as other ‘blank’ instruments such as price per square foot, price per unit, rent per square foot, and the like, come under this category.

What is a Good Gross Multiplier?

In our hypothetical case, we came up with a GRM of 9.06 years. This figure changes according on a variety of circumstances. The most essential thing to remember about it is that it will gradually decline as the market cycle lengthens and property values rise. Early in the real estate cycle, when the market is recovering from a recession, the GRM will normally be low as investors begin to reinvest in the market and purchase homes. asliquidity begins to progressively reenter the circulatory system In such settings, GRMs in the single digits may be the norm.

  • A solid rule of thumb is that the smaller the gross revenue margin (GRM), the more potentially valuable the transaction.
  • Remember, while working to calculate the Gross Rent Multiplier, it is critical to remember to take into account all running costs before making a decision on a certain investment property.
  • When determining whether or whether a property is profitable and has investment potential, operating costs such as utility bills, upkeep, management, repairs, vacancies, and other expenses are key considerations to consider.
  • A comparison of the gross rental income (GRI) of a Class C industrial building to the gross rental income (GRI) of a Class A apartment building, for example, is not very fruitful, especially if the two properties are located in different markets.

Instead, utilize GRM to assess assets that are comparable in condition and traded in similar marketplaces that are reasonably similar.

Gross Rent Multiplier Examples:

Aside from concerns related to the stage of the real estate cycle, the GRM can also change based on other factors such as the location and kind of property. For example, there will most likely be a consistent range within which the GRM will occur for Class A characteristics and a distinct range within which the GRM will occur for Class C properties. Class A assets, which have reduced operational risks because they are well maintained, well situated, and have higher credit tenants, will cost more to purchase compared to gross rentals than Class C properties because they are more expensive to acquire relative to gross rents.

This allows investors to easily assess prospects in locations with which they are not familiar, allowing them to make more informed decisions.

Why is the Gross Rent Multiplier Important?

As part of the commercial real estate investment process, one of the most important skills is the ability to discern swiftly between properties in order to determine how much time and resources should be allocated to completing further investigation on potential investment prospects. Commercial property prices differ significantly from residential property assessments, and there are a plethora of considerations when selecting a commercial property. When you have to worry about building upkeep and maintenance, as well as dealing with the vagaries of rental revenue, increases, tenant difficulties, and everything else that comes with owning a profitable commercial property, property comparisons become considerably more difficult.

Thus, it is an excellent way to save time when searching for investment properties; rather than delving into the financials of every single property a sponsor comes across, they can find the Gross Rent Multiplier quickly and efficiently and make quick decisions on whether or not to look further into the property or to pass it up altogether.

Every second saved in a search is another spent drilling down on assets that are more deserving of further investigation.

Pros of GRM

There are a few basic advantages to examining the gross rent multiplier of an investment property, including the following:

  • The capacity to compare many properties in various areas that have comparable qualities in a short period of time
  • It is a formula that is simple to compute and then use, making it suitable for even the most inexperienced investors
  • Especially handy for people who are looking at dozens, if not hundreds, of investment options at the same time

Cons of GRM

Having stated that, GRM is only a starting point for further exploration.

There are a number of disadvantages to utilizing GRM, which is why it should always be used in conjunction with other analytical techniques to maximize its effectiveness. The following are some of the disadvantages of GRM:

  • Having stated that, GRM is only a starting point for further investigation. Using GRM has a number of disadvantages, which is why it should always be used in combination with other analytical techniques. The following are some of the drawbacks of GRM.

How is a Gross Rent Multiplier Different Than Cap Rate?

Cap rate and gross rental income (GRI) are two terms often used by real estate investors, and they are sometimes confused to mean the same thing – despite the fact that they are extremely different. First and foremost, cap rates are based on NOI, or Net Operating Revenue, expressed as a percentage of the property’s value or price, as opposed to the total planned income that is utilized in the general reserve model. Cap rates, as opposed to gross rental income (GRI), are calculated by dividing net operating income by property price rather than dividing property price by top-line revenue as is done with the GRM.

Therefore, when measuring investment success, the cap rate is a considerably greater indicator of genuine property worth than the gross rental income (GRI).

The net revenue margin (GRM) is a first-look statistic for sponsors; the cap rate, which requires more attention to check precisely, is a second-tier item utilized to obtain a more realistic image of truevalue and potential.

What is the 1% Rule?

People are frequently encouraged to follow the “1 percent Rule” while analyzing rental property options by real estate investors and real estate trainers, among others. The 1 percent Rule is another method of determining the value of a property that makes use of gross rentals. One percent rules stipulate that gross monthly rentals must be at least one percent of the purchase price in order to be considered reasonable. For example, a property that sells for $500,000 should earn gross rentals of $5,000 per month on a monthly basis.

Similar to the GRM approach, the 1 percent Rule gives an unpolished method for swiftly analyzing investment ideas.

To be clear, we acknowledge that this is a rudimentary method of analyzing investments because there are several other elements to take into consideration as well.

However, it’s possible that this is the consequence of ineffective marketing or property management.

Before dismissing an investment, a clever investor would investigate more to determine why the property is valued so high while the rents are so low, and whether there is a chance to decrease the gap, resulting in a ratio closer to one percent.

What are the Limitations of the Gross Rent Multiplier?

Like previously said, the Gross Rent Multiplier is a fantastic starting point, particularly for beginning investors. However, as with any valuation approach, it is not without flaws, as we will see below. When it comes to real estate assets, it is one of the most difficult investments to vet, and while the GRM can show an investor how one property compares to another, it does not provide the complete picture—not by a long stretch. This assessment does not take into account any delayed maintenance expenditures, bothersome tenants, hidden expenses, excessive operating costs, or other liabilities connected with a real estate investment property.

As previously mentioned, price per foot, cost per unit, rent per foot, and other comparable methods should be considered.

How to Use Gross Rent Multiplier

GRM may also be used to keep track of the value of real estate. Consider the following scenario: an investor has owned a building for ten years and is now considering selling the property to another party. The investor is unsure of the property’s market value at this time. They’ve adopted a “set it and forget it” mentality, and, to be honest, they haven’t been paying attention to the worth of their property in quite some time. One method of utilizing GRM is to reverse into a prospective value.

  1. Property value equals GRM multiplied by gross annual income.
  2. 8.25 (GRM) multiplied by $320,000 (Gross Annual Income) is $2,640,000.
  3. Once again, this is only a rudimentary guidance and should only be used as a starting point for investors who are just getting started.
  4. Additionally, GRM might be a beneficial tool for investors who are unsure whether or not they are charging market rents.
  5. When long-term owners are not actively involved in property management, we frequently see their rentals drop below market rate over time, which distorts the figures presented above.
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Gross Rent Multiplier in Context

In order to make the most informed decisions, investors should consider the Gross Rent Multiplier of a property in the context of various other aspects. As previously stated, GRM is essentially a straightforward instrument for determining the worth of a piece of real estate. However, it should be used in conjunction with other tools (such as cap rates and cash-on-cash return computations) throughout the due diligence process to provide a more complete picture of a transaction. If the GRM appears to be significantly out of whack for whatever reason, it may be necessary to conduct more research.

  1. It is possible that the rent for that apartment is not represented in the rent roll provided by the sellers, despite the fact that the rent for that unit may be significantly higher now that the property has been renovated.
  2. Lenders will also use this computation as a quick approach to analyze the merits of a certain transaction.
  3. In the latter scenario, a person’s personal credit score is far more important to a lender.
  4. Commercial financing is a completely different animal altogether.
  5. The personal credit score of the buyer is far less important.
  6. GRM is also used to calculate the value of a property’s equity.

Lenders often accept a greater loan-to-value ratio when the GRM is lower; however, this is not always the case because a variety of additional risk variables must be taken into consideration throughout the decision-making process.

How GRM Differs from a Cash-on-Cash Return

Many investors also utilize the Cash-on-Cash return to estimate the worth of a piece of property they are considering purchasing. It is more effective than a GRM, but it takes substantially more time and work to evaluate whether it is being used properly. In order to calculate the Cash-on-Cash Return, investors must enter their actual cash investment, as well as gross rent, and apply an accurate accounting of expenditures to the equation. Because financing expenses – fully amortized monthly mortgage payments – have a substantial influence on cash-on-cash returns, the cash-on-cash calculation also demands that the investor take these costs into consideration.


There are several compelling arguments in favor of use the Gross Rent Multiplier when evaluating possible commercial properties. Because of its simplicity, even the most inexperienced investors may take use of this formula to their benefit, with minimal chance of making mistakes, as opposed to more difficult formulae. It also saves time because it simply takes a few seconds to assess whether or not a property fulfills your GRM standards, and you can utilize the approach with neighborhoods, regions, cities, or even entire states to save time.

The more advanced evaluation procedures often utilized in sophisticated feasibility studies can assist investors in developing a clearer image of their possible investments once a property has been evaluated by these ‘blunt’ calculations and prospects discovered.

It is also effective in finding properties that are worthy of further research.

More than you ever wanted to know about Gross Income Multipliers

Generally speaking, a GRM is a tool that real estate investors use to evaluate and rate possible properties based on their rental income and fair market value. Put another way, the gross rent multiplier is a simple, back-of-the-hand approach for determining whether a property is income-producing or not, as well as for determining how it compares to other properties in the same neighborhood.

Gross Rent Multiplier Defined

It is the ratio of the value of the real estate investment in relation to its gross rental revenue that is known as the gross rent multiplier (GRM). Real estate investors may quickly determine which properties are worthwhile of their time and money by just looking at the property price and gross rental revenue. Apartments and rental properties in Manhattan, New York, and Columbus, Ohio, to name a few of cities, are ideal examples. If you were given the choice between the two cities, the instant answer would almost always be New York, even if the situation was reversed.

Right? It’s a no-brainer, really. NYC. It’s the big apple, after all. However, this is where you are incorrect. As of right now, Ohio is the preferable alternative because of the following:

  • Following a spike at the beginning of 2021 in the state’s real estate market, investors have flocked to the state to purchase investment homes scattered around the state. In the area, according to Roofstock, there is a robust rental market
  • Based on the cities’ gross rent multipliers, Manhattan has an average of 16.6 GRM and Columbus has an average of 10.53 GRM.

When it comes to evaluating characteristics with the use of GRM, the lower the GRM, the better. A lower value suggests that your investment will pay for itself in a shorter period of time, which means you will be able to begin collecting rental revenue from your rental property sooner rather than later.

How to Calculate the Gross Rent Multiplier

Calculating GRM is a simple and straightforward process. Not all of the hard mathematics is required. To calculate the gross rent multiplier, you just need to know two things: the gross rent multiplier and the gross rent multiplier multiplier. (1) The acquisition price of the property and (2) the annual rental revenue are both important considerations. For example: Gross Rent Multiplier (GRM) = Price (PP) x Gross Annual Rental Income (GARI)Example:

  • Property Price = $715,000 Gross Rent Multiplier x $60,000 Gross Annual Rent = 11.9 Gross Rent Multiplier

*The figures are derived from the average gross property price of real estate investments in New York City. The property price is the fair market worth of the real estate, whereas the gross rental income is the entire amount or profit earned through rent. Usually, a property’s pricing is based on the selling or asking price of an investment property. Sale price, list price, and appraisal value are all phrases that might be used to describe it. Alternatively, you might seek the advice of a real estate investor who is a specialist in the field.

The quotient is your GRM.

Why Does It Matter?

Knowing how to compute GRM, the next challenge is to determine what the figures imply. The outputs of the gross rental multiplier formula provide an estimate of how long it will take for the property to pay off the gross rent from the investment to pay off the mortgage. The GRM was 11.9 in the case that was provided above. In other words, the payout time for a typical rental property in New York City would be at least 12 years. This makes GRM an excellent screening tool for evaluating a large number of possible investment assets.

  • It is not possible to account for the expenses and operational costs associated with a real estate property acquisition using the GRM formula since it is based on yearly gross rent.
  • Year after year, these additional expenditures take the shape of operational expenses, maintenance fees, and property taxes.
  • Having said that, it is still valuable.
  • The method may be used to quickly determine which investment properties are good investments and which are terrible investments.

Simply said, the gross rental multiplier provides you a first peek, or an overview, of what you may expect. If this is still unclear, consider the following:

What Is a Good Gross Rent Multiplier?

Making a long-term investment in the real estate market is a wise decision. That is why it is beneficial to understand what constitutes a decent gross rent multiplier. For the most part, financial advisors and real estate professionals would agree that GRMs ranging from 4 to 7 are regarded to be ‘healthy.’ Anything above that would make it more difficult to pay off the property’s purchase price in full with the annual gross rental income would be considered a negative. In general, this is correct, but the value is also dependent on the location, the local market, and the nearby investment properties that are equivalent in value.

For example, it has been discovered that larger cities with higher levels of life have a higher GRM.

The median GRM in San Francisco is 26.06, which is a high value.

The GRM in Pennsylvania, on the other hand, is only at 10.63.

Using GRM to Estimate Real Property Value

In addition to serving as a screening metric for possible real estate investments, the gross rent multiplier formula may be used to estimate the worth of a piece of real estate property. When the fair market value or the rent multiplier property price is not known, the GRM formula can be used to determine it. The formula is as follows: Gross Annual Rental Income X Gross Rental Market Value = Property Price/Real Property Value This shows us how much a commercial real estate investment property is worth in the current commercial real estate market.

Using GRM to Compute for Annual Gross Rent

When estimating the projected rent of an investment property, the gross rent multiplier might be useful as well: Annual Gross Rental Income = Multiplier Property Price Gross x GRM (gross rental income). For example, if a real estate property is valued at $550,000 and the average GRM of the surrounding region is 4, the gross rent in one year should be $137,500. Your rental revenue from the property should be at least $11,458 per month, if not more. If the gross income exceeds the amount calculated, it is probable that it is worthwhile to invest your money.

The ProsCons of the GRM

While the gross rent multiplier has certain advantages as a property assessment tool, it also has some downsides. Knowing this can assist you in determining where GRM is most valuable, when to seek for it, and what the results of the computation indicate. Please keep in mind that GRM is merely one of the numerous tools available.


When it comes to dependability, the gross rent multiplier formula is virtually impenetrable in its simplicity. This is why real estate investors usually use the GRM when comparing homes, and here are some reasons why you should as well:

  • Rental properties have their own set of rules. Gross rent multipliers, in contrast to other property valuation methodologies that rely on factors such as the property price gross yearly and the price per square foot, take into account the rental income, cash flow, and rent roll that will be created. This simplifies the process of calculating the rate of return on an investment property
  • It’s a formula that’s simple and straightforward. To compute for the GRM, it takes no more than five minutes or less. Benchmarks for a variety of properties. When comparing similar homes in a given location, the gross rent multiplier is a useful tool to have on hand. Making the job of a property investor easier by recognizing which rental properties are worthwhile investments is one of its primary functions. Versatile. GRM is beneficial regardless of whether you are a buyer or a vendor. A seller seeking to rent out his home may use the equation to determine how much to charge for it, while a buyer on a tight budget might look for GRMs that are lower in the market in order to save some money.


While utilizing the gross rental multiplier has several advantages, there are some disadvantages as well, including the following:

  • Costs are not taken into consideration. The GRM formula is a method of determining the value of real estate based on revenue. The entire profit is reduced by the amount of running expenses, repair and maintenance charges, and property taxes that have been incurred. Even while it may not appear to be a significant issue, it truly is. It is foolish to spend your resources in a rental property that has a modest gross rental income (GRI), but whose maintenance costs are quite expensive
  • This is not accurate. In part because the gross rent multiplier does not take into account insurance costs, vacancy rates, and other additional expenses, it may not accurately reflect the full potential of the property. As a result, GRMs are often reserved for initial screening purposes only. In order for the estimate to be most accurate, a more in-depth examination of a real estate property should be performed.

GRM Vs. Capitalization Rate

The capitalization rate is a way of valuing real estate as well as a word that is strongly related with the gross rent multiplier. The capitalization rate, often known as the cap rate, is a financial ratio that is used in real estate analysis to determine the profitability and cash flow of a property. Its value, like the GRM, is determined by the amount of rental revenue a property may provide. The similarities, however, end there. One of the most significant distinctions between the capitalization rate and the gross rent multiplier is that the cap rate takes into consideration the property’s operating expenditures and vacancy rates, whereas the gross rent multiplier does not.

  1. If this is more accurate, why bother with the GRM in the first place?
  2. To respond, there are certain disadvantages to using a cap rate.
  3. The GRM is used by investors because it is the quickest and most straightforward method.
  4. We are therefore faced with the decision of which strategy to employ: the cap rate or the GRM.
  5. It is all up to you.
  6. The cap rate makes up for the lack of a gross rent multiplier in the first place.

However, if you don’t have enough time, GRM will suffice on its own own. Remember that the pay-off duration of an investment property is represented by the GRM, but the cap rate reflects whether or not the property has the potential to pay off its mortgage debt.

Other Ways to Calculate Property

When it comes to investment properties, there is no one statistic that can be used. Both the GRM and the cap rate have advantages and disadvantages. As an investor, it is essential to be well-equipped with the appropriate tools and technology. In this part, we’ll look at two different approaches to calculating properties. As a result, keep scrolling!

Gross Income Multiplier (GIM)

The gross income multiplier is another simple method of determining the value of an investment or commercial property (GIM). The gross income to property value (GIM) ratio is the relationship between the value of the property and the gross revenue each year. In principle, the word GIM is essentially identical to the term GRM, with the exception that this formula adds additional non-rental sources of revenue and cash flow every month, whilst the former does not (i.e. vending machines, laundry shops, etc.)

Home Value Index

To compute the index of house value, take the Market Basket for the year and divide it by the Market Basket for the base year, as shown in the table below. The house value index, which examines changes and volatility in gross rent multiplier property values, provides us with information about the state of the market.

In a Nutshell…

When evaluating, ranking, and comparing income-producing properties, we turn to GRM for help. It’s difficult to tell the difference between excellent and rotten apples when you have a cart full of them. The investment property market might be a similar situation at times. Fortunately, the gross rent multiplier makes things a little easier. We may create a scale by multiplying the gross property price of a real estate with the annual rental revenue and dividing the result by the multiplier. The GRM shows us how long it will take to pay off the investment and start making money on the investment.

We can get more precise information and make better decisions about which properties to invest in if we conduct due diligence.

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